So I think this is resolved but even more maddening than the bug you can't reproduce is the bug that fixed itself.
I went to add a second spare phone to the provisioning profile and did one other thing, I tried to add a detected device the easy way through xCode: https://www.bignerdranch.com/we-teach/how-to-prepare/ios-device-provisioning/ using their "Easy Way" guide on a copy of the Briefs app source code I had laying around from when Apple wouldn't let Briefs on the app store and they threw the source out on github. Basically I added a team in xCode and logged into my Developer profile in xCode.
That still didn't work to push a build to the new phone (of my app not the Briefs) so I got the UUID from the phone and added it to the profile on the site and copied the downloaded profile after I redid everything on the Developer website.
I tried again on the second phone and the push worked, plugged the main phone back in and
rake device worked fine there too. Both work with xCode running, which the error seemed to indicate wouldn't work. I have been testing them both switching back and forth between the simulator with rake, rake device to the phones with zero issues. Go figure. Was it adding the team account in xCode or reprovisioning the profile after adding a device?
At least documented for the masses.